Wednesday, April 16, 2014

The Power of Questions

Generate questions!

Project-based learning (PBL) and inquiry-based learning (IBL) begin with a driving question, one that hopefully excites students and gets them started on their path to learning. The driving question is the first part of the PBL/IBL process to create important needs: a need to gather information that will answer the question and a need to develop skills necessary to produce a beautiful product that both exhibits that knowledge and has impact in the world.

Passover, which Jews are in the midst of celebrating now, is a holiday in which we highlight questions. The Seder gets a big, inquiry-based start with the four questions, the mah nishtana. The Seder is all about engaging children in the story of the Exodus narrative and getting them to participate in the drama and experience of the departure from Egypt and the redemption of the Israelite people. The Haggadah is set up so that the children's engagement begins with asking questions.

The Four Questions page from Arthur Syzk's
famous Haggadah from the early 20th century, Poland
The truth is that throughout history, the Jewish people have understood that asking questions creates curiosity and a desire to learn. Jewish exegetes left no angle of the Biblical texts unquestioned, and the Talmudic approach to learning is to ask questions; often answers aren't as important as the discussions that questions engender, and a Beit Midrash -- a Jewish place of study -- is filled with discourse, dissent, and disparate approaches to text and Jewish law. Inquiry leads to vigorous exploration of text and law, true, but also ultimately what it means to be Jewish.

We've been thinking more deeply about the role questions play in education because recently -- and especially over Passover -- , we've been reading A More Beautiful Question by Warren Berger. See the book trailer below:

The book shows the power that asking questions can have in changing the status quo and getting us to think differently about . . . well, just about everything.

Before Passover vacation, we had a chance to ask students in a sophomore English class who had read A Doll's House to look at the play and connect it to another work they'd studied this year. The sophomores then had to ask a big question about their connection. Here are two student responses that made us realize how powerful it can be to get students formulating questions.

We like the way Jonah connected his learning to Passover and the notion of freedom:

In comparison to _Little Bee_, _A Doll's House_ also has the theme of freedom. Both women, in the novel and play, quest for freedom. Little Bee, of the eponymous novel, left her troubles behind in Nigeria to seek out refuge and freedom in England. Nora, of _A Doll's House_ , searched for freedom as well. Initially, her freedom was thought to be achieved by paying off her debt. However, after the event of Krogstad's blackmail, she reconsiderd her personal notion of freedom and happiness in the house of Torvald. In light of the quickly approaching Passover, as well as the two works of literature that we read, what does freedom really mean to you?

Batsheva asks a great question about the sacrifices one might be forced to make in pursuing a grand ideal:

Throughout the year we have discussed giving voice to the voiceless. In Little Bee, Sarah and Little Bee gave a voice to the African children at the price of Little Bee's life. In the play, A Doll’s House, Nora stands up for herself and all the objectified women of her time at the expense of her children. 

At the end of the play, Nora realizes that her husband is a selfish, hypocritical man who has been treating her like a child and a doll, rather than as an equal. “It was tonight, when the miracle didn’t happen. It was then that [she] saw that [he] was not the man [she] thought [he] was” (115). Nora finally stood up for herself and all the objectified women of her time.

Even though Nora is a fictional character, her rebellion taught women of the time to fight for their beliefs. Women would never have been granted the right to vote or to be independent without having to risk everything. Nora gave up her children so she could be independent. To accomplish something worthy, sacrifice and radical transformation is necessary. 

Is it worth losing your loved ones to embark on a personal quest?

To use the terminology Warren Berger introduces readers to: how might we make questioning a more important and frequent component of education -- and our own lives?

Additional Resources

Want to see how these math, science, and engineering teachers work with a PBL coach to create a driving question on wing efficiency in planes?

Finally, have you seen Frisch School English teacher Daniel Rosen's blog post on how the Passover Seder is like a PBL unit? 

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Liat Greenwood's Take on a Passover Poem

The Haggadah poem, va-yehi ba-hatzi ha-lailah, "And it was in the middle of the night," is explained here as an echo of a biblical verse in Exodus and of a midrash, Rabbinic interpretation. Through the use of repetition and an alphabetical acrostic structure, the poet moves us to consider additional midnight redemptions Jews experienced through the ages.

The class went outside to enjoy the spring air, and since
Passover is chag ha-aviv, the holiday of spring, to
contemplate slavery and freedom in African-American
spirituals and Maya Angelou's "Still I Rise."
Then the class drew images and/or wrote poems
about enslavement and liberation.

In class, Liat Greenwood was asked to link Passover to the literature and ideas she had studied over the course of the year or to a personal story she knew of slavery and redemption. Here is the poem that came out of the assignment, which she accompanies with a photograph she took. The poem is an impressive take on the Seder one and reminds us as well of Muriel Rukeyser's poem about Passover:

 Liat Greenwood Passover 2014

Saturday, April 12, 2014

Learning by Doing in Higher Ed

"10 Courses With a Twist" was a must-read in this week's New York Times Education Life. 

Here are some highlights:

Beyond Academic Research

For one, the article mentioned the new emphasis on engaging students in more non-traditional ways:

What’s exciting now is that even universities that prize academic research are putting more emphasis on teaching, says Matthew Kaplan, interim director for the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University of Michigan. “There is pressure to have students engaged in their learning beyond ‘Come to the lecture, do the reading.’ ” He recalls that Michigan’s provost spent 55 minutes of a recent hourlong faculty meeting talking about teaching.

In inventive teaching, students are not just sponges soaking up content. They apply lessons to life, says C. Edward Watson, director of the Center for Teaching and Learning at the University of Georgia. He adds that “faculty are trying to be more engaging in the classroom” because, for one, “competition is greater than it used to be.”

The proliferation of online content means in-person courses must offer more than just another lecture “video.” 

Then the article got into the ten courses it found inventive and exciting. Courses such as . . . 

Introduction to Computer Science at Harvard

Dr. Malan says that he (and a staff of 102) “are really setting out to create not a course for students, but a college experience.” CS50 is popular as a massive open online course through edX, but the real action is on campus. An all-night hackathon is fueled by pizza at 9 p.m., Chinese food at 1 a.m. and pancakes at 5 a.m. Office hours, held in various dining halls, can attract 200. A fair to show off final projects, with cake and balloons, draws 2,200, including parents and busloads of curious high school students. There’s even an online store where you can buy CS50 apparel at cost to show off your course allegiance.

Love the hackathon and fair, which makes the work visible. Plus, the class seems really joyful and fun to take.

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology at Kansas State University

Check out the way this professor gamed the course:

How did the world end up the way it is today? It’s a big question, but Dr. [Michael] Wesch makes it tangible as students plan and play in a world simulation. The 200-level class is broken into groups of indigenous peoples and colonizers. They get bins of limited supplies and must trade for other items to make weapons, following rules they devise in advance. Colonizers typically get blowgun-like tools to launch marshmallow-tipped straws while indigenous peoples may only use rubber bands. 

We love the way "playing the game" created empathy within this student for a colonized person:

Jordan Thomas, who took the course in 2012 and is now a teaching assistant, felt the impact of being colonized and made to string marshmallows on rubber bands. When you get “taken over and are forced to sit around and assemble and manufacture a necklace for the entire hour, you engage in the emotions that come with that,” he says, adding that this was something he never would have gotten from a book.

We also love the impetus for gaming the course: the professor's frustration with students' being fixated on grades:

Dr. Wesch started the simulations in 2004 after growing frustrated that most student questions were about grades and how much something was worth on a test. “Those are terrible questions,” he says. [We completely agree!] “I realized I needed to change everything.” Yes, there is a final exam, but it’s only one question: Why are you here? (He’s expecting you to tell the 12,000-year history of mankind and what you plan to do for the planet.)

And talk about real-life application:

In the first session, Dr. Wesch points out that if the whole world were the 200 people in the room, 38 would be from China, 35 from India and 9 from the United States. “Three of you would be dying, and six would be pregnant. The child born in the U.S. will have 10 times the chance of surviving until his fifth birthday.” There’s enough food for 2,500 calories a day per person, he said, but 30 suffer from hunger. There’s no easy explanation for this: That’s the lesson of the course.

Philanthropy Courses

These courses remind us of the teen philanthropy program, Project SCOPE, that RealSchool has been working on this year. Actually having to decide what to do with money and work out what a good cause is is an invaluable lesson. In the following courses, students were given money to donate; the RealSchool students are raising our own funds on Jewcer, a crowdsourcing platform. We found that experience deeply helpful as well.



Having real money, and a deadline for giving it away, lets students feel both the power and the challenge of charitable donations. Since 2011, the Once Upon a Time Foundation has provided some $2.5 million for hands-on learning at 13 campuses, including the University of Virginia and Princeton. Fueling the trend, Warren Buffett’s sister Doris began an online course last year through her Sunshine Lady Foundation in which participants give away $100,000.

Caroline Trezza, a junior at Virginia who advocated funding City Schoolyard Garden, says she learned to evaluate programs and ask, “Are they addressing the problem, or addressing something tangential?” Philanthropy is harder than you’d expect. To help alleviate strife in rural Africa, Princeton students struggled with provocative questions. “You can save a lot of lives administering vaccines,” one student noted. Another countered, “But what if the people starve to death?”

Can You Weather This Class?

Upper-level students get to chase down tornadoes with one professor, Dr. Perry Samson -- the other professor of this Extreme Weather class in the University of Michigan is Dr. Stephen W. Bougher -- while the rest of the students log into a class platform where they must answer questions such as "Where on this weather map would you expect wind speeds to be highest?" Students are also encouraged to ask dumb questions -- anonymously, if they want -- and all tests are "open book, open computer, call a friend." As Professor Samson puts it:

In life, says Dr. Samson, rarely will you be asked a question about science that you can’t look up.

What a welcome change from the standardized testing approach to finding out what students know.

World Regions

In this Virginia Tech course taught by John Boyer, students find out how geography relates to . . . well, everything. And when Professor Boyer showed a map of Egypt in order to discuss the Arab Spring and students wanted to know why more wasn't going on in Jordan, Dr. Boyer said . . . 

“Maybe we should ask someone from Jordan.” Less than six hours after a YouTube appeal to King Abdullah II of Jordan, the king’s office responded.

Just in case you don't believe it's true, here's the video in which Dr. Boyer humbly beseeches King Adbullah for a visit to his classroom:

The Amazing Carol Dweck of Stanford

We've read about Dr. Dweck's work and have seen it featured in Becoming Adult: How Teenagers Prepare for the World of Work. We've also blogged about Dr. Dweck before, so we were excited to see her course featured in the Times article. We encourage all students -- and adults -- to embrace the growth mind-set students learn about in Dr. Dweck's class:

Learning by Doing and Do Change the World

We love that the Times highlighted courses that are hands-on, encourage creativity and divergent thinking, and are focused on creating empathetic, global citizens with the ability to embrace change and failure and the passion and desire to change the world! We also love that these courses seem really fun to take. We want all learning to be this engaging, joyful, and relevant. 

Thursday, April 3, 2014

Reflections on PBL from Sophomore English

This past year at The Frisch School, Dan Rosen, Meryl Feldblum, and I [Tikvah Wiener] "PBL"-ed our sophomore English class. Here is our curriculum, which centered around the questions of how do we identify stock characters and stock devices, and how does literature give voice to the voiceless?

After the latest multi-disciplinary project, The Frisch Africa Encounter, which happened on March 12, I asked my students to reflect on the year so far. Here are two exemplary reflections. We think it's amazing that Ben, the student who wrote the second reflection, was "electrified" by the opportunity to write and think about what interested him. 

Reflection One

Zach A.

English class has been an incredible experience this year.  Rather than the usual style of learning where the teacher simply teaches the class for forty minutes, this year has been completely different.  Through project-based learning, not only have I enjoyed class more, but I also believe that I have retained the information learned even better than I would have using the previous method of instruction.  Learning about stock characters and stock plot devices, Little Bee, and the African continent have truly impacted my perspective on literature, and my worldview as a whole.  Those three topics, although originally foreign to me, are the ones that I enjoyed learning about the most, and are the ones that I hope will continue to influence my personality even after the school year has ended.

In the beginning of the year, we learned about stock characters and stock plot devices.  A stock character is a classic/stereotypical character whose personality conforms to society’s perspective of the character.  Some examples are “the jock” or “the evil scientist.”  Stock plot devices, similar to stock characters, are situations/scenarios that are often portrayed in works of literature, such as “aliens take over the world” or “the relationship that went too fast.”  Before learning about these literary devices, I had never really recognized them.  I was aware of “classic” characters/situations, but that was all that they were to me: classic characters/situations.  Learning about how authors utilize these literary devices opened up my eyes to an entirely new way of understanding works of literature.  Rather than simply viewing characters/plot lines in a literal fashion, I am now able to analyze those elements and apply them to real-life situations.  I now understand that when an author uses one of these literary devices, the goal is just that.  An author wants the reader to be able to recognize these stock characters and stock plot devices in order to get the reader to apply them to his own life.  Furthermore, learning about these literary devices has had a profound impact on my own life.  When I recognize a stock character or stock plot device, it compels me to take a step back and recognize whether or not I am similar to that character/whether I have had a similar experience, and if that is good thing.  For example, in The Prioress’ Tale in The Canterbury Tales, the stock character of “the evil Jew” appears.  The Prioress says, “The serpent Satan, our primal enemy, who has his wasp’s nest in Jewish hearts” (p. 135).  She attributes the evil Satan to the hearts of the Jews, perfectly portraying the stock character of “the evil Jew.”  When I read this, I immediately compared myself to the Jew in the story, and came to the conclusion that I could not be any more different than that stock character.  Ultimately, I am a unique person and therefore reflecting on how I am both similar and different to stock characters is crucial in the development of my personality for the better.

One of the novels we read this year was Little BeeLittle Bee by Chris Cleave is a novel about a Nigerian refugee named Little Bee who seeks refuge in England, where she is taken in by a woman named Sarah O’Rourke.  The novel sheds light on a multitude of issues such as exploitation, refugees, morality, and societal flaws, but the issue that resonated with me the most was the need to give voice to the voiceless.  The novel contained many examples of refugees who are voiceless.  Little Bee, the main character, personifies this characteristic.  Little Bee has a burning desire to fit into western society.  She learns “the Queen’s English,” befriends Sarah, looks after Charlie (Sarah’s son), and helps Sarah any way she can, all in an effort to live like a normal girl in England.  Nevertheless, she is still voiceless when confronted with society (represented in the novel by the English government) and is sent straight back to Nigeria without the slightest notion of what the right thing to do might actually be.  I believe Cleave wanted to make a point that Western society should be more kind to refugees and really take the time to listen to their stories so they can be given a voice.  It is important not to be so self-centered and believe that you and your country are “the best” while everyone else is not as important.  Personally, I gained a sense of humility after reading Little Bee.  It is a little embarrassing to think that this is how refugees are treated in our society, and I definitely learned the importance of putting others before myself and thinking more about other people’s concerns.

One of the most exciting parts of this year’s curriculum was The Frisch Africa Encounter.  For about a month I, along with several other students, researched how the organization Innovation: Africa is improving life in Africa through the introduction of drip irrigation to African countries.  Africa has an extremely dry climate, and as a result, it is crucial that not a single drop of water is wasted.  Unfortunately, in an effort to grow crops, much of this valuable water is wasted due to evaporation and other factors.  However, drip irrigation is the technology that is changing the course of agriculture around the world.  Netafim, an Israeli company, developed the technique of drip irrigation.  Water from a water source is dispensed into a system of tubing with the help of a pressure control valve.  The water is then threaded through the tubes where it is slowly and constantly dripped directly to the roots of a plant.  This allows every drop of water to be utilized and also allows the plant to absorb the water more efficiently.  With drip irrigation, up to 70% of the water used to grow large scale crops can be saved, and plants can even be grown more efficiently.  An incredible success in Israel, drip irrigation is now being introduced to countries in Africa with the help of Innovation: Africa, so that they too can benefit from the revolutionary technology that is changing the face of agriculture.  My group and I presented our research at Africa Night.  Personally, it felt amazing to show off to parents the knowledge I gained through The Frisch Africa Encounter, and explain how important the work Innovation: Africa is accomplishing.  Aside from the fact that The Frisch Africa Encounter was a wonderful experience, it also showed me how lucky I am.  While researching all about Africa and the situation there, I realized how lucky I am to be living comfortably in America.  There are so many things I take for granted due to the fact that I live in America, and The Frisch Africa Encounter helped me realize that I should appreciate everything I’ve been blessed with.

Every English class that I have ever taken has followed the conventional teaching style of having students take notes while a teacher teaches for the entire period.  I have never experienced an English class quite like this year’s.  The way project-based learning allows me not only to learn the material, but enjoy learning it in a relaxed environment as well, has made my experience one that I will remember.  I can now apply the skills I learned in recognizing stock characters/stock plot devices, the messages I learned from Little Bee, and the values I gained from The Frisch Africa Encounter to any other work of literature I will read in the future.  Additionally, learning about stock characters, stock plot devices, Little Bee, and Africa truly enabled me to examine my personality, enhance my worldview, and hopefully have a lasting impact on the way I view and treat others who are not from my society.

Reflection Two

Ben L. 

I don't mean to sound sappy or clichéd, but I feel that English class this year was a new experience for me. I had fewer lectures, fewer tests, and less rigid structure than I ever had before. Yet, I felt like there was more to learn, more to think about, more to explore than ever before. It was the freedom I was given, the ability to choose my own conclusions, to customize and personalize my projects, that made literature seem like such an open and exciting place.

This phenomenon is relatively new in my experience. In middle school, I could never conform to my teachers' expectations. I remember reading "Flowers for Algernon" in 8th grade. We were asked to write an essay on the nature of intelligence in the story, but I decided to focus on the more philosophical aspects of intelligence in general and compare the author's vision with those of other philosophers'. I invested a lot of hard work in that paper, but I was given an F for A) discussing what the teacher called "off topic" and "tangential" ideas, and B) not giving a proper header as instructed. All of my thoughts, musings, and explorations of the theme of intelligence were disregarded, because I did not think or muse about what the teacher wanted me to, as well as the absence of proper formatting. Yet, through 9th grade I retained my interest in literature, reading an occasional short story or play, but I never attempted to organize or solidify my thoughts on it. I was reading "Ward No.6” and Other Short Stories" by Anton Chekov when we were given an assignment to write on Wilde's "Dorian Gray". I asked if I could compare the two for my essay, as the two writers were radically different in their approach and style. In my old school, everything up to my conclusion would have been chosen for me at this point. Yet, now I was being given free range, not to mention positive support, for my choice of topic. A week before the due date, I shirked my usual video-game routine to eagerly contemplate the nature of the two: while they lived and died within a margin of a few years, I realized that they both had radically different styles: Chekov wrote his love scenes in a cold, stark, neutral, and dispassionate way, while Wilde hosed the reader down with metaphors, poetry, witticisms, descriptions, and nauseously vibrant emotions. While I had a dim sense of this before the project, writing it down and sketching an outline solidified, improved, clarified, and recorded my understanding of both. But more importantly, it felt electrifying to be rewarded for my own, independent interests, and to incorporate them into my schoolwork.

Maybe it's that freedom that has raised my English grade this year and caused a surge in my interests in literature. I believe that there are a number of benefits to this style of teaching. First off, the notion that our opinions and conclusions matter have greatly increased pride in our work, and thus our desire to do it has increased. I feel I have many times argued or disagreed with the material placed before me, and was commended for for thinking outside the box instead of being rebuked. Furthermore, an emphasis on technology and art provided a more accessible, hands-on means of understanding the subject at hand. Lastly, the freedom and mutability of the projects enabled us to rely on our imagination, to learn from what interests us, and to be rewarded for our own delves into literature. The Merchant of Venice assignment utilized all of these traits, making it a prime example of how the class works. Students were expected to play a scene and create a website page based on their studies of the play. My group decided to switch roles, with my female friend playing the Moroccan prince while I donned the role of the fair Portia. Reading from my iPad, our little act caused a small riot of laughter, but our teacher realized the spotlight our performance had placed on character stereotypes and roles, pointing out to the whole class that our gender switch highlighted Shakespeare's use of stereotypes, especially the boy/ girl mechanic seen in the scene. By doing the unexpected, we proved a point about the play and received praise from our peers. For the second part of the unit, we were tasked with creating a webpage describing a theme in the play, a format we were familiar with. I used a video about a similar phenomenon in Romeo and Juliet to show that our subject, responsibility versus love, was pan-Shakespeare.

Yet, even with the seeming open-endedness, our class stuck to a singular theme. Through gothic literature to Shakespeare to The Canterbury Tales to African immigrants, we studied how people were represented in literature. How others see them, how they see themselves, roles we fit into, misconceptions we break -- through all of our roaming, we have focused on these themes. We analyzed common gothic tropes, we studied mockeries and satires of stereotypes in old English, attempting to distinguish between sarcasm and reflection, we found anti-Semitic stereotypes and humanity all bundled up into the incredibly complex character that is Shylock, and we read a Nigerian immigrant's struggle with her own identity/nationality. But more than just another arbitrary subject for school, I find this subject invaluable for us as adults. As high school students, the world we are about to enter is ripe with stereotype and crises of identity. We will encounter views and conceptions of other people -- and it is crucial that we be able to distinguish truth of character from stereotypes and misconceptions ingrained into the minds of our peers. At the same time, we must be able to accept our own identity and see through the stereotypes others impose on us; not much has changed since the era of Shylock. We must learn to accept ourselves, both as Jews and individuals, like Little Bee, not Julian. It is not enough to know math and science -- we must be able to see through the tropes and stereotypes of life -- to create our own character!

I repeat: I don't mean to sound sappy or clichéd. But I feel as though I have learned a lot about literature. Not the names of famous authors or the meaning of poetry. I have learned to recognize others and accept myself, to be proud of my own beliefs and opinions, and to not be afraid to venture into literature. I have learned, in a sense, to make my own path.